How Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Affect Brain Development
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) refer to stressful or traumatic events experienced by individuals before the age of 18. These experiences can vary widely and may include abuse (physical, emotional, or sexual), neglect, household dysfunction (such as witnessing domestic violence or growing up with substance abuse, mental illness, or incarceration in the household), or other traumatic experiences. The impact of ACEs on brain development is profound and can have long-lasting effects on an individual's physical health, mental health, and overall well-being. Understanding how ACEs affect brain development is crucial for developing effective interventions and support systems for those who have experienced trauma during childhood. Read more: What are the 7 stages of brain development

What are ACEs?

ACEs, or Adverse Childhood Experiences, are bad things that can happen to kids before they turn 18. These things can include abuse, neglect, or living in a household where there are problems like domestic violence, substance abuse, or mental illness. ACEs can affect how kids grow up and can cause health problems later in life.

How ACEs Affect Brain Development

  1. Stress Response Changes: ACEs can make the brain more sensitive to stress, leading to strong reactions even in normal situations.
  2. Emotion Regulation Challenges: ACEs can make it harder to manage emotions, causing mood swings or difficulty controlling feelings.
  3. Learning and Memory Impact: ACEs can affect how well the brain learns and remembers things, making it harder to focus or remember information.
  4. Brain Structure Changes: ACEs can alter the structure of the brain, especially areas related to stress and emotions, potentially affecting behavior and mental health.

Impact of ACEs on Child Brain Development

  1. Altered Brain Structure: ACEs can lead to changes in brain structure, particularly in areas related to stress response and emotion regulation.
  2. Impaired Neural Development: ACEs can hinder the development of neural connections, affecting cognitive abilities and emotional regulation.
  3. Increased Risk of Mental Health Disorders: Children exposed to ACEs are at higher risk of developing mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and PTSD.
  • Psychological and Behavioral Consequences of ACEs

  1. Emotional Dysregulation: ACEs can lead to difficulties in regulating emotions, resulting in mood swings and impulsivity.
  2. Behavioral Problems: Children exposed to ACEs may exhibit behavioral problems such as aggression, defiance, and hyperactivity.
  3. Cognitive Impairments: ACEs can impact cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and executive function.
  • Long-Term Effects of ACEs on Brain Development

  1. Risk of Chronic Stress: ACEs can predispose individuals to chronic stress, which can have lasting effects on brain health.
  2. Increased Vulnerability to Mental Illness: Adults who experienced ACEs as children are at higher risk of developing mental illnesses later in life.
  3. Impact on Overall Well-Being: ACEs can have long-term consequences on overall well-being, affecting relationships, work, and physical health.

Disease, Disability, and Social Outcomes


  • Increased Risk of Chronic Diseases: ACEs make it more likely to develop chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.
  • Stress Response: ACEs can lead to a heightened stress response in the body, which can contribute to inflammation and hormonal imbalances.
  • Unhealthy Coping Mechanisms: Individuals who experience ACEs may develop unhealthy coping mechanisms such as smoking, overeating, or substance abuse, which further increase the risk of chronic diseases.
  • Cycle of Poor Health: The toll of chronic diseases can exacerbate mental health issues stemming from ACEs, creating a cycle of poor health outcomes. Early intervention and support are crucial to breaking this cycle.


  • Physical Disabilities: ACEs can lead to physical injuries or neglect that result in long-term disabilities.
  • Mental Health Disabilities: ACEs increase the risk of developing mental health disorders like anxiety, depression, and PTSD, which can be disabling.
  • Impact on Development: ACEs can hinder normal development, leading to cognitive or behavioral disabilities.
  • Social Implications: Disabilities can affect a person's ability to interact with others or participate in activities, leading to social isolation or exclusion.
  • Need for Support: Individuals with disabilities stemming from ACEs may require additional support and resources to cope with daily challenges and improve their quality of life.

 Social Outcomes:

  • Relationship Difficulties: ACEs can make it hard to form and maintain healthy relationships with others.
  • Educational Challenges: ACEs can lead to difficulties in school, such as poor academic performance or behavior problems.
  • Employment Issues: Adults who experienced ACEs may struggle to find or keep a job due to the impact of trauma on their ability to function in a work environment.
  • Isolation: ACEs can lead to feelings of isolation or loneliness, as individuals may have trouble connecting with others.
  • Support Networks: Building strong support networks can help individuals affected by ACEs overcome these challenges and lead fulfilling lives.

How We Can Help

At the New Jersey Pediatric Neuroscience Institute (NJPNI), our Pediatric Neurosurgeon experts recognize the impact of ACEs on brain development and overall health. We are committed to providing comprehensive care for children and adolescents affected by trauma. Our services include counseling, therapy, and support groups, aimed at helping children and families cope with ACE-related effects. Source  


In conclusion, ACEs can have a profound impact on brain development, leading to a range of physical, mental, and social consequences. Understanding how ACEs affect the brain is crucial for developing effective interventions and support systems for those who have experienced trauma during childhood. At NJPNI, we are committed to helping children and families heal from the effects of ACEs and lead healthy, fulfilling lives.
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How Long After a Pediatric Concussion Can You Get a Massage Safely?
Worried about your child after a bump to the head? You're not alone. Concussions are common in children, and navigating the recovery process can be confusing. One question that often arises: How long after a pediatric concussion can you get a massage safely? In this blog, we'll delve into the world of pediatric concussions and massage therapy. We'll explore the importance of timing for optimal recovery, provide safety guidelines for massage after a head injury, and even explore real-life case studies and expert opinions. So, if you're wondering when a massage might be beneficial for your child's healing journey, keep reading!

Kids and Concussions: When is Massage Okay?

When your child bumps their head and gets a concussion, rest is key. But after a while, a sore neck or tight muscles might make them wonder – is a massage safe yet? Here's the lowdown on massage therapy after a concussion, keeping things simple and safe for your little one.

Importance of Timing for Pediatric Concussion Recovery

Understanding the healing process is vital for making informed decisions about massage therapy.

Understanding the Healing Process:

The brain after a concussion undergoes a delicate repair process. Medical professionals estimate a recovery timeline of 7 to 10 days on average, though this can vary depending on the severity of the concussion and the individual child. Factors influencing recovery duration include:
  • Severity of the impact: A stronger blow to the head typically leads to a longer healing time.
  • Symptoms experienced: The presence and duration of symptoms like headaches, dizziness, and nausea can impact recovery.
  • Prior concussions: Children with a history of concussions may take longer to heal from subsequent ones.

Risks and Benefits of Massage Therapy:

Massage therapy offers potential benefits for concussion recovery, including:
  • Reduced muscle tension: Concussions can cause headaches and neck pain. Massage can help alleviate these symptoms.
  • Improved circulation: Massage promotes blood flow, which can aid healing.
  • Stress reduction: Massage can promote relaxation, which can be beneficial for children experiencing post-concussion anxiety.
However, receiving a massage too soon after a concussion can be counterproductive. The brain needs time for rest and gentle stimulation. Deep tissue massage or techniques that stimulate the nervous system can worsen symptoms.

Safety Guidelines for Massage Therapy After Pediatric Concussion

Recommendations by Medical Experts: Pediatricians and concussion specialists generally recommend waiting for doctor's clearance before scheduling a massage after a concussion. This ensures the child's brain has had sufficient time to heal and is ready for external stimulation. Top Considerations Before Scheduling a Massage: Here are some key points to consider before scheduling a massage for your child after a concussion:
  • Symptom Resolution: Ensure most concussion symptoms, like headaches, dizziness, and nausea, have significantly subsided or completely resolved.
  • Doctor's Approval: Obtain clearance from your child's doctor who is familiar with their specific concussion case.
  • Communication with Therapist: Inform the massage therapist about your child's recent concussion and any lingering symptoms.
  • Gentle Techniques: Request a massage specifically designed for post-concussion recovery, with a focus on light pressure and relaxation techniques.
When to Avoid Massage: If your child experiences any setbacks or worsening of symptoms after a massage, discontinue further sessions and consult your doctor.

How Long After a Pediatric Concussion Can You Get a Massage Safely?

After a head bump, your child's well-being is your top priority. Concussions can leave parents with many questions, including when massage therapy becomes a safe option.  While massage can be beneficial for recovery, timing is crucial. This wait period allows the brain to heal and reduces the risk of worsening symptoms. Generally, doctors recommend waiting 7-10 days after a concussion resolves before considering massage. However, this timeframe can vary depending on the severity of the injury. The key is to prioritize your child's doctor's guidance. They can assess your child's progress and provide the green light for massage therapy when the time is right.

Case Studies and Expert Opinions

Real-Life Experiences: Many children have benefited from massage therapy after recovering from a concussion. Here's a fictional example: 10-year-old Sarah sustained a concussion during soccer practice. After a week of rest and symptom resolution, with doctor's approval, Sarah received a gentle massage focusing on her neck and shoulders, which significantly reduced her headaches and improved her sleep quality. Expert Interviews and Recommendations: Dr. Lisa Jones, a pediatric physical therapist: "Massage therapy can be a valuable tool for post-concussion recovery, but timing is crucial. I recommend waiting for symptom resolution and consulting the child's doctor before scheduling a massage. Gentle techniques focusing on relaxation and improved circulation can be highly beneficial." Dr. Michael Lee, a concussion specialist: "The optimal timing for massage therapy after a concussion can vary. It's important to listen to your child's body and prioritize their comfort. A gradual approach with doctor-approved massage techniques can significantly enhance a child's recovery journey."


By understanding the healing process and following the guidance of medical professionals, parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about incorporating massage therapy into their child's post-concussion recovery plan. Remember, prioritizing your child's comfort and well-being is paramount. With the right timing and approach, massage therapy can be a safe and beneficial addition to the healing journey. Additional Tips:
  • Look for massage therapists certified in pediatric massage or concussion recovery techniques.
  • Communicate openly with your child throughout the massage session and ensure they feel comfortable at all times.
  • Focus on creating a relaxing and safe environment for your child during the massage.
By following these steps, you can ensure that massage therapy contributes positively to your child's complete recovery from a concussion.
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Hello Friends, Are you passionate about making a difference in the lives of children and families? Join our team at the New Jersey Pediatric Neuroscience Institute (NJPNI) and be a part of an inspiring journey towards pediatric neurological care excellence! NJPNI is hiring for Front desk/Call center representative, Certified Medical Assistant, Billing specialist, LPN and NP. Please email all resumes to
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NOTICE: This website is for informational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice or as a substitute for a patient/physician relationship.

NJPNI is committed to creating a culturally diverse, inclusive and collaborative community for patients and their families, employees and associates where each person is celebrated and has a sense of equal belonging. See our DEI Statement Page for more information.

NJPNI does not exclude, deny benefits to, or otherwise discriminate against any person on the grounds of race, color, or national origin, or on the basis of disability or age in admission to, participation in, or receipt of the services and benefits of any of its programs and activities or in employment therein. This statement is in accordance with the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and Regulations of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued pursuant to the Acts, Title 45 Code of Federal Regulations part 80, 84, and 91.

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